If after a successful deployment, Managed Metadata Term Store Synchronization is missing from Central Administration the most likely culprit is the fact that you don't have the "Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application" service running within SharePoint. Go to Central Administration, Manage Services on Server and be sure that the "Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application" service is showing as started.
This is necessary because there is an administration component that needs to be installed in central administration. A SharePoint Solution will not deploy to servers that don't have that web application service running. Once the service is running, reinstall Term Sync.